Research Methods in Toxicology and Insecticide Resistance Monitoring of Rice Planthoppers
Insecticide resistance in rice planthoppers is developing rapidly, especially to the neo-nicotinoids, like imidacloprid. In China where planthoppers have acquired hundreds of folds resistance, the Ministry of Agriculture had removed this active ingredient from the rice market. Resistance reporting has been rather inconsistent differing in methods, equipment used, insect conditions, stages and statistical analyses. Since the manuscript of the first edition was completed in 2010, research partners in the ADB-IRRI Rice Planthopper Project have been conducting routine monitoring as well as evaluating repellents, studying reversion of resistance and using molecular techniques. Several workshops were held to compare results and discuss the methods, analyses and interpretation. The second edition of this book contains the modifications made based on the feedbacks. They replaced authorship with Professor Z. Liu of Nanjing University joining and added 4 more chapters and references. Although the contents of Chapters 1 to 7 remain similar the authors have edited and updated them with new information wherever appropriate. As in the first edition, they continue to draw from the works of Busvine (1971), Finney (1977) and Robertson et al (2005) and provide step-by-step procedures for readers to design experiments and use the program for analyses.