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Here are links to information on Golden Rice

Here are links to key research studies on Golden Rice:

Tang, G., Y. Hu, S. Yin, Y. Wang, G. Dallal, M. Grusak, and R. Russell. 2012. Beta-carotene in Golden Rice is as good as beta-carotene in oil at providing vitamin A to children. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 96(3)658–664.

The beta-carotene in Golden Rice is as effective as pure beta-carotene in oil and better than that in spinach at providing vitamin A to children. A bowl of ∼100 to 150 g cooked Golden Rice (50 g dry weight) can provide ∼60% of the Chinese Recommended Nutrient Intake of vitamin A for 6–8-year-old children.

Black RE et al. 2008. Maternal and child undernutrition: global and regional exposures and health consequences. The Lancet 371(9608):253.

Maternal and child undernutrition is highly prevalent in low-income and middle-income countries, resulting in substantial increases in mortality and overall disease burden. Deficiencies of vitamin A and zinc were estimated to be responsible for 0·6 million and 0·4 million deaths, respectively, and a combined 9% of global childhood disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs). The high mortality and disease burden resulting from these nutrition-related factors make a compelling case for the urgent implementation of interventions to reduce their occurrence or ameliorate their consequences.

Paine JA et al. 2005. Improving the nutritional value of Golden Rice through increased pro-vitamin A content. Nature Biotechnology 23:482–487.

Golden Rice is a variety of rice engineered to produce beta-carotene to help combat vitamin A deficiency. It has been predicted that its contribution to alleviating vitamin A deficiency would be substantially improved through even higher beta-carotene content.

Tang G, Qin J, Dolnikowski GG, Russel RM, Grusak MA. 2009. Golden Rice is an effective source of vitamin A. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 89:1776–83.

Beta-carotene derived from Golden Rice is effectively converted to vitamin A in humans.

West KP, Klemm RDW, Sommer A. 2010. Vitamin A saves lives, sound policy, sound science [Commentary]. World Nutrition 1(5):211-229.

Vitamin A supplementation programs effectively and safely reduce child mortality. Children need to consume diets containing far more beta-carotene from plain foods than previously supposed.

Whitcher JP, Srinivasan M, Upadhyay MP. 2001. Corneal blindness: a global perspective. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 79(3):217.

Diseases affecting the cornea are a major cause of blindness worldwide, second only to cataract in overall importance. While cataract is responsible for nearly 20 million of the 45 million blind people in the world, the next major cause is trachoma which blinds 4.9 million individuals, mainly as a result of corneal scarring and vascularization.

World Health Organization Global Database on Vitamin A Deficiency. 2009. Global prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in populations at risk, 1995–2005. Geneva: WHO.

The understanding of how the prevalence of VAD and the factors related to its development vary by population subgroup, geography, level of development, and other social and economic factors will make interventions easier to select and target to the most appropriate populations.

Xudong Y et al. 2000. Engineering the provitamin A (ß-carotene) biosynthetic pathway into (carotenoid-free) rice endosperm. Science 287(5451):303–305.

Endosperm, the remaining edible part of rice grains after it is milled, lacks several essential nutrients such as provitamin A. Thus, predominant rice consumption promotes vitamin A deficiency – a serious public health problem in at least 26 countries including highly populated areas in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Recombinant DNA technology was used to improve its nutritional value in this respect. A combination of transgenes enabled biosynthesis of provitamin A in the endosperm.

Barry G. 2011. Golden Rice - fighting vitamin A deficiency in the Philippines and Bangladesh. Powerpoint presentation presented during the seminar Leveraging Agriculture to Improve Human Nutrition: Prospects for Golden Rice organized by the International Food Policy Research Institute held on 14 April 2011. Washington, DC. [Watch video on]

Leading nutrition and agricultural research organizations are working together to further develop and evaluate Golden Rice as a potential tool to reduce vitamin A deficiency in the Philippines and Bangladesh.

Related links

Golden Rice Brochure - March 2017

GoldenRice cover

Golden Rice brochure
(Revised March 2017)

Vitamin A fact sheet


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