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Thursday, February 16, 2017, 01:15pm - 02:15pm
February 16, 2017
"The contribution of IRRI germplasm to rice Improvement and yield growth in India". Authors: Aldas Janaiah, (Consultant, Social Science Division, IRRI, India Office), Prakashan Chellattan Veettil, Ekta Joshi and Samarendu Mohanty
The principal objective of the study is to compute and analyze the contribution of IRRI germplasm to India’s rice improvement program and its effect on yield growth over the past 50 years (1966–2015). The term “rice improvement” in this study is confined to varietal development programs with respect to (a) the number of high-yielding varieties (HYVs) released for the farmers, and (b) improvement of varietal traits (maturity period, grain quality, and resistance to insect pests and diseases). Time-series data on different outcome-indicators of the rice improvement program and other time-series data (1966 to 2015) were compiled from various reports of the All-India Coordinated Rice Improvement Project (AICRIP) from and from various sources of the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare of the government of India. A genetic improvement index is constructed for each HYV with digressive proportionate scores for each parent at each generation (up to F5). The share of germplasm of IRRI and NARES is computed based on the source of germplasm at each stage.
About 50% of the total 1,066 HYVs released in India over the past 50 years have IRRI germplasm. Among them, 155 HYVs were developed based on IR8 alone. Nearly two-thirds of IRRI-germplasm HYVs have resistance to insect pests and diseases. Three-fourths of the total IRRI-germplasm based HYVs are either short- or medium-duration HYVs. The overall contribution of IRRI’s germplasm to the varietal development program in India over the past years is estimated at 25.4%, including about 3.2% by IR8. Furthermore, IRRI’s germplasm has about a 51% share in IRRI germplasm-based HYVs released during 1966-2015.
Average rice area planted to IRRI germplasm-based HYVs over the past 50 years is 8.2 million ha per year, which is about 20% of India’s total rice area. Net share of IRRI’s germplasm in total rice area is estimated at about 10% of the total rice area every year during this period. Additional average annual rice production due to widespread adoption of IRRI germplasm-based HYVs is about 18 million tons, of which 50% is accounted for by IRRI germplasm over the past 50 years. In financial terms, at about an average price of USD 200 per ton of paddy, nearly USD 2.4 billion per year of financial benefits have been generated by IRRI germplasm-based HYVs and USD 1.2 billion USD by by IRRI’s germplasm from 1966 to 2015.
Nearly 18% of overall yield growth in India over the past 50 years was contributed by IRRI germplasm-based HYVs, of which about half is exclusively accounted for by IRRI germplasm alone
Havener Auditorium, International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, 4030 Laguna, Philippines